Art: its essence, types, genres and history
Art is a way of understanding and reflecting reality by creating a special product – works that can evoke an emotional response in people. Along with science, art is used by mankind for the correct perception and understanding of the world around us. The most important function of art is to satisfy two spiritual needs of a person: love for beauty and the desire to receive aesthetic pleasure. Art. Albrecht Durer. “The Adoration of the Magi” Art also helps to shape public consciousness, stimulates the emergence of new thoughts and ideas through the sensations received by a person. It can take all sorts of forms and serve a variety of purposes (from the sublime and noble to the vile and disgusting).
Types and genres of art
Art is a very voluminous definition, so it combines a huge number of ways to display the author’s intent. Art forms are classified according to the following parameters:
- The subject of display is pictorial (for displaying reality) and non-pictorial (for embodying the inner world of a person with expressive means).
- According to the dynamics – spatial (characteristic of a particular area) and temporal (corresponding to a specific historical era).
- In terms of utility – elegant (performing a purely aesthetic function) and applied (additionally in demand in everyday life).
- According to the materials used – traditional art materials (paints, clay, granite, marble, wood, metal), modern means of processing information storage (computer graphics, digital painting), sound (musical works), word (prose, poetry, calligraphy), people performer (singer, actor, clown).
Historically, it has also been customary to separate species
art by genre (themes and objects of display) and styles (features of the use of artistic techniques in works).
The main types of fine arts are:
1.Spatial (statistical or visual): Architecture (design and construction of buildings).
- Painting (mono- or polychrome image of objects and objects on a plane by artistic means).
- Graphics (the embodiment of an artistic image on a plane with lines and strokes).
- Sculpture (creation of three-dimensional works from solid materials).
Photo art (reflection of reality or emotions of the author through photographs). Decorative and applied arts (manufacturing of objects that combine aesthetic and practical functions).
- The circus;
3.Temporary (auditory): Music; Literature; Poetry.
History of the development of art
The history of art dates back to ancient times. There is no consensus among scientists regarding the origin of this way of reflecting reality. A significant part of philosophers believe that God’s providence served as an impetus for the birth of art, it awakened in our ancestors the highest spiritual principle and the desire to create. According to another theory, primitive man, through the creation of primitive handicrafts (images), sought to understand the world around him and transfer the acquired knowledge to other members of society.
Primitive art was closely associated with games and rituals. It existed in the form of images of animals on the walls of caves, songs, dances, decorations of the body with drawings and symbols, all kinds of objects made from improvised materials (shells, bones and animal skins). The emergence of ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Phoenician, Babylonian) marked a new stage in the development of art. Thanks to the division of physical and mental labor, a relatively small part of people were able to devote themselves entirely to creativity, to become professional architects, painters or sculptors.
In the Age of Enlightenment, the time has come for a radical restructuring of public life. This was inevitably reflected in art by the emergence of new styles: